# Always Ask One More Question

Badb just asked me if I could show her how to calculate the square root of a number. I cast my mind back to 7th grade and tried to remember going up to the blackboard and calculating arbitrary square roots. “Um, yeah, but let me go look it up. It’s been a long time and I want to be sure I’m right,” I said. I found a nice explanation that aligned well with the method I learned oh-so-many years ago (and haven’t used since — what do you suppose slide rules, calculators, and general-purpose computers are for, if not for doing homework?) and came back to her. “Okay, so show me the number you’re supposed to take the square root of.”

It was 3600.

Srsly. Always ask another question. But keep the interwebs handy just in case your kid does need to compute the square root of 5,287 and show her work.

# Time Out for SQL

Basic SQL is pretty simple, really. It’s only when I start dealing with big joins and group functions that I start to lose track of what exactly is going on. I’m in that situation now, so I’m constructing a small data set with short table and column names so I don’t have to type as much while I figure out the right syntax. The general problem statement I’ve got is this:

Given a pair of tables where one table holds a bunch of records and the other table holds labels for groups of those records, construct a single SELECT statement that will select all of the records as a single output cell with the format: “label1:’record1′,’record2′,’record3′,label2:’record4′,’record5′,’record6′”.

I’m working with MySQL and intend to use some swell functions, namely CONCAT and GROUP_CONCAT. My initial demo setup is this:

```create table demo_a (
c_id    int NOT NULL,
c_name  varchar(60) NOT NULL
);

create table demo_b (
r_id    int NOT NULL,
r_name  varchar(60) NOT NULL,
c_id    int NOT NULL
);

insert into demo_a(c_id, c_name) values (1, 'first cohort');
insert into demo_a(c_id, c_name) values (2, 'second cohort');

insert into demo_b(r_id, r_name, c_id) values(1, 'Dave', 1);
insert into demo_b(r_id, r_name, c_id) values(2, 'Sunny Jim', 1);
insert into demo_b(r_id, r_name, c_id) values(3, 'Hoos-Foos', 1);
insert into demo_b(r_id, r_name, c_id) values(4, 'Paris Garters', 2);
insert into demo_b(r_id, r_name, c_id) values(5, 'Harris Tweed', 2);
insert into demo_b(r_id, r_name, c_id) values(6, 'Zanzibar Buck-Buck McFate', 2);```

Okay, now this query will return six rows, showing the names and labels of each record:

`SELECT b.r_name, a.c_name from demo_b b left join demo_a a on b.c_id = a.c_id;`

Let’s see if we can get the output down to two rows, each consisting of a label and some concatenated names.

`SELECT a.c_name, GROUP_CONCAT(b.r_name ORDER BY b.r_id SEPARATOR ', ') from demo_b b left join demo_a a on b.c_id = a.c_id GROUP BY b.c_id;`

That works! Okay, now let’s see if we can get that down to a single column.

`SELECT CONCAT(a.c_name, ": ", GROUP_CONCAT(CONCAT("'",b.r_name,"'") ORDER BY b.r_id SEPARATOR ', ')) from demo_b b left join demo_a a on b.c_id = a.c_id GROUP BY b.c_id;`

Hey, that’s pretty good! Okay, now how do I get these two rows collapsed down into a single one? I wonder if I need to wrap this select in another select, defining the two-row result set from the above query as a table and then grouping all those rows together. This sort of matryoshka nesting of queries is what gives me SQL headaches.

```SELECT GROUP_CONCAT(x.labeled_names SEPARATOR ', ') single_row FROM
(SELECT CONCAT(a.c_name, ": ", GROUP_CONCAT(CONCAT("'",b.r_name,"'") ORDER BY b.r_id SEPARATOR ', ')) labeled_names
from demo_b b left join demo_a a on b.c_id = a.c_id GROUP BY b.c_id) x;```

OMG it totally works! Yay!